Help amend Baike card locomotive locomotive is dragging or moving
railway vehicle action, and load the operating load itself does not self-propelled vehicles, commonly known as the locomotive. Transport fuel consumption per ton km by enumeration, locomotive is the least energy-consuming land transport.
About Taiwan in terms of the by the steam engine, diesel engine, gas turbine, tension motors and additional power mechanism directly alternatively through gear pedal. Power mechanism to produce locomotive driving cycle torque, and gave the wheel to rail equal and opposite response. Reaction of each wheel and phoned the locomotive traction. The traction wheel Week by coerce and power generated by cutting out, so called round-week traction.
convergence motorcycle (1) Taiwan's terms the There are two cardinal averaging of this word: 1, case in point: you are Refers to the reaction is very slow, like the old type of motorcycles. 2, for instance: your reporters do not write too Refers to the gossip, Malaise, rumors, etc. ...... S constantly annotate on someone small self-propelled conveyances, commonly known as the locomotive.
Locomotive locomotive railway transport - motorcycle
lose an major tool. Is the use of steam locomotives, diesel engines, traction motors or other mechanical power generated by power and driven by the locomotive drive wheel (wheel), wheel and rail with a definite degree of adhesion between the driving force arising from the locomotive traction. Generated by the train locomotive traction to surmount the resistance, you can tow more than 10 times its own weight or more than 20 times the car out. By train traction calculation, can be won by a locomotive can be tractor out of the total weight. To improve the locomotive traction, it is necessary a corresponding increase in weight adhesion locomotives (locomotive moving rotation for all the weight on the track). However, the weight of the locomotive axle make sure adhesion (a fixed axis vertical to the two drive wheels on the track of the weight) is finite. If more than axle load limits, increase the number of axes. Therefore, the number of axes is an momentous parameter locomotive, composed by a diversity of axes laid axle locomotive can be characterized by the performance neatness and purpose. Locomotive or train in orbit, must be skillful to cut corners or stop at any time, so the locomotives and rail cars are equipped with brakes (discern the train brakes), operated by the driver. You can also use locomotive power unit, gear or reverse the operation of the traction motor blocking achieve resulting from the go of assistant braking device (discern locomotive dynamic braking). Locomotive or train, the wheels coiling on the pressure in the rail, the wheels and tracks are elastomers, will have springy deformation, there can be no real peace in a straight line or round face. The speed of each vehicle in motion is not accurate the same deed is also inconsistent buffer appliance coupler, rolling stock in motion to create an imbalance of power, braking force generated when a different system, and the train line through the curve complicated elements such as these, plus turbulent stream on the impact of the outside earth will must train locomotives or vertical, horizontal and vertical vibration. Therefore, the longitudinal force generated by rolling stock, locomotives and rolling stock on the frame, body and coupler has an impact cushioning appliance. Between the train and track the manoeuvre of wheel-rail interaction force, affecting the bogie, wheel and rail life. Transported by land transport in the amount of absolute fuel consumption per ton km, locomotives expend less vigor. The cost of the railway locomotive, but a considerable proportion of total manipulating costs. In order to play the biggest economic locomotives, national railway companies have developed a locomotive and locomotive maintenance management system. Overview of the first invention of the steam locomotive is, it uses steam instead of animal traction vehicles on the track. After the emergence of a kind of locomotives locomotives in the current
type developed afterward the appearance of power machine out. Following the emergence of several steam locomotives later the order is: cordless locomotives, diesel, gas turbine automobile. 1804 British Teli Wei Sigg created the first steam locomotive. 1929 produced To encounter the transport absences to produce steam because manifold purposes, yet likewise to reserve the high-power, lofty traction and high speed evolution, to the 20th centenary, reached its tip 30 to 40 years. 1879 made the first applying of a small direct new third rail for cordless locomotives. 1890s some countries have in the underground railway, metropolis suburban railroad lines long tunnel partition of the application and electric locomotives. To the late 1920s, numerous countries have electrified railway, mostly accustomed for DC overhead catenary. 50 years, high-power ignition tube rectifier and 60 years after the appearance of high-power semiconductor rectifiers, industrial frequency AC electric locomotives to amplify quickly. This locomotive power boosts, the performance improved significantly, though a colossal capital investment, merely the cost namely high, tin be used in transport above the engaged electrified railway. Diesel cars made in 1923 trial, a prim applying in 1925. Little early deserving to engine power, used for shunting; that came about 1000 kilowatts of locomotive diesel engine, will create a trunk with a locomotive, two or more sections correlated together. The results from the use that it is superior than the steam locomotive. 1950s and rapidly disseminate, power also increases. Manufacture of gas turbine car in 1941, the first time in 1943 ashore the use of the railway, a few pilot countries to do the formal application or use of small quantities after the maimed. Although not widely used, merely likely. Steam locomotive uncomplicated framework, low cost, rugged, prevailed by the railway Uehara. But economic efficiency and exhaust pollution of the context is gradually being replaced by diesel and electric locomotives. The United States in 1960, the United Kingdom in 1968,Xupu Bridge, France in 1972, Japan in 1975, either Germany and the Soviet Union in 1977 have been weakened. Although many countries are still used, but the proportion borne by the shortening volume. Categories locomotive power element can be used, intention and form of scampering gear classification. Classified by power vegetation can be divided into two categories. ① heat locomotive: the prime originator is fitted heat, such as steam, diesel, gas turbine cars. These locomotives were carrying oil and water
, is the energy of the locomotive comes, can travel independently, at all times the right track and to add fuel and water facilities will be able to run. But the locomotive weight and dimensions are subject to axle load and rail gauge limitations, can not be made too large,Magic Milumilu, too heavy, and therefore installed on the machine to power the vehicle's weight and size is also compelled. Diesel engines and gas turbines are internal combustion engine, equipped with both the prime mover of the locomotive called diesel. Diesel cars mounting the gear transmission mode, can be divided into mechanical drive diesel cars, diesel electric drive and diesel hydraulic transmission; GT cars as well. ② electric locomotive: one lost by an external power station by the railway substation, and then by rail or catenary over the track laying on the side of the third-rail power supply of the locomotive. Rated power supply capacity is not impeded, so it has power, short-term overload, high speed, faster acceleration, traction, no smoke exhaust pollution of the environment, etc., for transport busy or steep incline, long tunnel railway line, especially for suburban transport in major cities and subway transportation. However, this locomotive can only run at stand a catenary or third rail and the laying of power lines, locomotives and flexibility as heat. Electrified railway is also beside telecommunication interference. Due to the erection of catenary or third rail and the laying of every substation and so set a certain distance, so a large capital investment. Use category can be divided into five categories. ① passenger locomotive: passenger cars pulling out of the locomotive, there must be a high speed and the starting acceleration, and can make long-distance running, but not necessarily great traction. ② freight locomotives: truck car pulling out of the locomotive, there must be considerable traction, can make long-distance running, but not high speed. ③ General motorcycle passenger (or universal locomotive): traction weight (number of cars and more) passenger car or light fast vehicles listed (installed fresh goods, refrigerated goods, etc.) vehicles out of its performance between passenger and freight locomotives between the locomotive. ④ shunting locomotive: the station or marshalling yard (field) for the car out of the disintegration and formation, such as pull-out, changing lanes, and take delivery of the vehicle operations such as locomotives. This locomotive prevalent starting and stopping, forward and reverse travel frequently, ought have sufficient adhesion weight, traction, starting acceleration, the necessary power and nice for the performance, speed can be lower. Shunting locomotive station and marshalling yard shunting locomotive shunting locomotives two. The former applies to passenger cars out on the station or portion of the goods vehicle and pull out the pick hanging operations, but also for industrial and mining plant transport, essential less power; which applies to marshalling yard (field) for cars out disintegration, marshalling and pull-out operations, but also doubles as a short-distance transport. ⑤ mining locomotive: as mining, metallurgy, gasoline, chemicals, woods and other internal transport and internal transport of the locomotive plant. Generally, the power ratio railway locomotive with a small, speed is not high, but it should have ample traction. In some special transportation locomotive factory must have launch, outbreak and other facilities. To this end, there are several specially designed motorcycle, such as: compressed climate locomotive, steam locomotive boiler to replace the atmosphere tank of compressed air, compressed air to the cylinder output step-down work; no fire, steam locomotive, also known as build steam locomotive, the actual is no accustomed steam locomotive fire carton, is there a certain pressure and corresponding temperature of saturated steam and saturated water arsenal in the insulation of the boiler to the cylinder output step-down work; battery locomotive, bring their own power cell power supply to the traction motor to drive the wheels electric locomotives. Classified according to the form of running gear can be divided into two categories. ① car rack motorcycle: motorcycle driving shaft mounted in a fixed position of the rigid frame. Steam locomotive power through the rocker, wand drive each wheel; a lot of small diesel car is driven through the gear box output shaft gear installed at both ends of the connecting wand driven by the crank needle drive wheels. This running gear with a simple structure, low cost and so on. But fixed wheelbase (mounted on a rigid frame and the final axis of the front axle axis thought by the horizontal distance) long, more difficult route through the curve, not at high speed, the steam locomotive's drive wheels with front wheel steering guide aircraft, equipped with a rear wheel bogie from, but still a car rack locomotive locomotive. ② steering rack motorcycle: motorcycle frame at each end by a smooth rotation of the bogie can be assisted. Two bogie frame is joined with and arising from round-week moving wheel traction frame and passed to the coupler. Electric locomotives, diesel and gas turbine cars use this form. Each truck can be equipped with 2 ~ 4 axes, generally 2 to 3-axis loading. The axes are usually fixed bogie axis, electric drive locomotive driving shaft are almost always separate drives, and only a single traction motor vehicle bogie locomotive bogies and hydraulic transmission axis is the linkage of dynamic (group co-driven) . The locomotive bogie smooth line can be transferred forward the curve, fixed wheelbase is short, easy-to line through the curve, coupled with improved spring suspension system, which runs smoothly, is profitable to high speed. Axle (wheel) arranged in short-axis type (round) col type, are apparent with simple structural functions locomotive running gear, which can be expressed locomotives properties and uses. This
marking effortless to use, and used for the national railways have set specific standards. Marker with a team of Arabic numerals, or capital Latin, or a alignment of mathematics and letters, mounted on a strict border (border or bogie) in a nailed location of the axle (wheel) number, divided into Groups. Symbols from left to right front to behind, said locomotive axle groups (circular) digit. Car frame machine axle (wheel) column-representation used for steam locomotives, there are 3 commonly used. ① Press the digit of axes in each team with the number that each group and a dash among the numbers, using this method are China, the Soviet Union, France and other countries. ① ② form and the same, but the number of axes to the number of rounds, using this method in the United Kingdom, Australia and the Americas, and Asia and some black countries. ③ Press the number of axes in each group, in numbers and from the adviser shaft axis (non-drive shaft) number, in alphabetical order, said moving axes, using this method are Germany and other European countries. Symbolic order is: guide shaft (wheel) the number - moving axis (wheel) the number - from the axis (round) number if the locomotive is merely a adviser and 4 drive shaft axis, but not from the axis, respectively, out of the 3 methods into :1-4-0 ,2-8-0, 1D. Another sample is the first articulated locomotive frame has a guide shaft and drive shaft 4, after the frame has four Drive Shaft and 2 from the axis, were fitted to 1-4 or 1-4 +4-2 -4-2,2-8-8-4,1 D-D2. Axle steering column-shelf machine performance in always countries by the number of axes that each bogie, bogie two axes plus a dash between the division, there are two commonly used representations. ① The number represents the number of moving axis and the number of non-fixed axes. ② in organic order, said the number of drive shaft, to digital, said the number of non-fixed axes. Footnote numbers or letters are National steering rack locomotive in North America are driven separately, so no need to multiplication a footnote or one apostrophe. Symbolic order is: front bogie axes - axes, such as after a bogie locomotive moving by the two 3-axis constitutes a divide drive bogie, were expressed as :30-30, C0-C0 or C-C (Inter-American ); the same axle bogie locomotives such as linkage (or a single hydraulic drive traction motor), were expressed as 3-3 or 3'-3 ', C'-C'. Another example is a 3 axle bogie locomotives constituted by the two, but each truck in the navel of a non-drive shaft axis, respectively, expressed as :10110-10110, A01A0-A01A0 or A1A-A1A. Use the relationship with the wheel diameter piston steam engine (Gou Bei), the mean speed is restricted, so the need to change the wheel diameter to meet the highest speed of locomotives or traction requirements. General tourist steam locomotive with three linkage axis, passenger and cargo locomotive with four prevalent connection shaft, a larger wheel diameter is about 1.650 ~ 2.000 m, the largest reach 2.133 meters (84 inches) for increased speed; guide wheel with 2 axle bogie, to assist smooth and secure running by high speed through the bend line; from the axle, as the pot on the size of a few, often an or two axes. Freight steam locomotive is generally 4 to 5 by the drive shaft in order to increase the weight to assure adhesion activity a big traction, whether you require more traction, it is essential to use more dynamic axis articulated locomotives, smaller wheel diameter is about 1.350 ~ 1.750 m; guide from the shaft axis and each for a general, the larger is also profitable for the two axes. Shunting locomotive speed absent from order to take full avail of adhesive heaviness, and generally do not guide from the shaft axis. Mining locomotive axis column-type with a small cargo aeroplane or shunting locomotives similar. Different uses of electric locomotives and diesel trucks to move wheel diameter is not to discriminate, but with their respective citizen standards set by one or two dimensions, at the peak of the alteration axle gear ratio, you can get the most speed or traction. Quality converge from running passenger locomotive bogie is best to use 2-axis; heavy locomotive power obtainable 3 axle bogie. Freight locomotives with three axle bogie common, more power and traction accessible in 4 axle bogie. Shunting locomotives and mining locomotives and traction needed to permit according to axle with 2-axis, 3 axis or 4-axle bogie locomotives. The various uses of the locomotive can be composed of 4 axes, respectively, 6 or 8-axis-axle locomotive. Traction with a general traction locomotives pulling the car out front. Trains traveling up the steep road and locomotive traction is low, the tail can add a accessory in the train locomotive push, through tough sections. With additional train weight to improve transport capacity, the available dual-reconnection (two locomotives linked together) and even more traction machine reconnection train. Electric locomotives and diesel multiple unit reconnection when used by the front of a locomotive driver centralized synchronization control, the driver backward the locomotive without manipulation. Steam locomotive can not do this, and even behind the locomotive traction rebate. It is also superior to diesel electric locomotives and steam zones. North America in adding to the extensive use of multi-section rail diesel traction outside the reconnection, also some of the rail using the . This train length is normally up to 250 trucks. A terse history of the world's first steam locomotive emerged, and after one electrical locomotives, diesel, gas turbine car. The development of steam locomotives in 1803 to create Britain's Te Liwei Sigg first steam locomotive traveling on the track; 1814, the United Kingdom Stephenson to create a 5-ton is generally considered the first successful locomotive. But the real use of the railway, and arrange the basis for the modern steam locomotive, is the dad and son designers Stephenson built, and in 1829, conquering in the game, created while the maximum speed of vehicles traveling on the ground. 1831, U.S. civilian engineer Jervis test the first time in front of the locomotive bogie mounted a guide, so that locomotives can turn on safe driving; 1836 American Campbell to devise a two-axle bogie two axis to guide the locomotive, but This chart is not successful,Lun Wen Xiangong basic solid, until the present-day mechanical engineers Harrison poised axle for the installation of improved union, became the perfect motorcycle. This car will soon transform the American criterion locomotive locomotive, appointed This type of locomotive No. 999 in 1893 to create a 181 km / hour by top speed. In order to improve the utilization of saturated steam, to increase the locomotive traction, and better through the corners, in 1888 the Swiss re-create the first mutual swelling locomotive, designed by the engineers, Mahler, Mahler said the locomotives. In 1904 the U.S. imported and used in mountain-type locomotive Mahler, afterward changed to a unattached expansion type, create the largest steam locomotive 2-4-4-2 type. The 20th century, the use of superheated steam steam rapidly inflated, while the locomotive has a large evaporation, large size, large boilers of large-scale development. China in 1881, the first system of its own steam Despite 100 years of steam locomotive development, but the use of thermal efficiency is merely about 6%, plus the large measure of conservation, pollution, mileage on the short run, so gradually the high thermal efficiency, the use of high power locomotives and diesel vehicles to replace. The United States in 1960, the United Kingdom in 1968, France in 1972, Japan in 1975, both Germany and the former Soviet Union in 1977, China in 1992, have stopped using steam locomotives. The development of electric locomotives in 1835 two Dutch Sitelating and Becker, to trial a small battery-powered two-axle railway locomotives; 1842, Scotland Davidson to create a set of 40 battery-powered criterion gauge electric locomotive; 1879, Germany's Siemens design and manufacture of a small electric locomotives, locomotive power from the external afford of 150 volt DC generator, and two alley and one through the third pathway between the input to the locomotive, electric locomotive The first successful drive. London, England in 1890 the first electric locomotive used in the 5.6 km long underground railway on the traction vehicle. 1895 Baltimore rail tunnel section of the United States, using line electric locomotive, the power of 1070 kilowatts. Early 20th century, European countries have built a few paragraphs to three-phase AC electric railway power supply. Early 20th century, the superiority of electric traction has been acknowledged, to the late 1920s, nearly every European nation has been electrified railway. For three-phase AC power supply system and the difficult locomotive deflector, electric locomotives direction gradually towards the use of alternating current frequency. 50 years later, with high-power mercury arbitrage rectifiers and rectifier tube ignition occurs, particularly the emergence of silicon diode rectifier, and subserved the use of frequency AC electric locomotive development. Since the 1970s, the route to high-power electric locomotives, high speed, durability direction. Speed passenger electric locomotives from the 160 km to 200 km. China in 1958 made the first one to kindle the tube rectifier The development of the diesel locomotive appeared before the United States in 1906 to produce electric drive petroleum motor car. Sweden 1913 to create a diesel electric drive motor car, the motor car and the construction of a similar diesel vehicle. In 1924 the Soviet submarine with a 735 kilowatts diesel, made from a diesel electric drive vehicles. 1923 United States made 220 kilowatts of electricity transportation diesel locomotives. To the early 1930's, diesel cars into the trial and the practical stage, more power in less than one thousand kilowatts, shunting locomotives primarily based. To the late 1930s, there has been more than a single locomotive passenger section of the trunk hanging together diesel. Diesel vehicles to run that, it's cost-effective than the same power of steam is much higher. After 1945, diesel car into a important development phase. Diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas turbo multi-system, a general increase in power. Northeast China in the 1930s have tried diesel, dragon, No. 1958 began manufacturing diesel and gas turbine locomotive development of the first gas turbine car is started from the use of double gas turbine. In 1933 Sweden made a 480-kilowatt free-piston gas turbine car; 1951, France has made 735 kilowatts and 1,770 kilowatts free piston gas turbine car; 1954 years ago the Soviet Union created 2210 kilowatts of free piston gas turbine; 1941, the first to create a Swiss open gas turbine car; the late 1940s and 1950s, the United Kingdom and the United States to create a alter power of the open gas turbine car. Stephenson's locomotive brain begin 祖史蒂芬森 design called After 150 years, Stephenson But with technological advancements, is known as Derivative sense locomotive: mainly refers to the many problems, many attitudes, it is meant to pick. Originally it was to mention machine X's. Heard that too complicated, it locomotives to the origin: Taiwan is that more people have motorcycles, many folk on many issues, so to describe a human with a motorcycle problem more analities, instigate ¨ and so on. Origin 1: Compare repulsive argument is machine 8 or machine destroying, for it said more bluntly, more Buwen Ya, because some people always mention you're machine ~ ~ Breaking car Origin 2: Statistics about the population of Taiwan has a large four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles or have more people, of way, is that more people have a motorcycle, that human is not a problem, the scale up, so to narrate a person with a motorcycle many problems, analities, instigate ¨ and so on. Origin 3: not because of Taiwan's motorcycle on a highway, it locomotives were interpreted as meaning not on the road. References 1
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Open Category: transportation, transmission, locomotive, . a locomotive; a locomotive engine; an engine 2.a motorbike; a motorcycle I must improve the