Group 1 of the periodic table of elements, generally consists of the unique orphan element, hydrogen below which is the cluster of six alkali metals: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. While the last three elements are extremely rare, and have little to do with everyday life, it is hard to spend a day without encountering at least one of the first three, particularly sodium, found invariably in table salt. Moreover, along with potassium, sodium is an important component of the human diet, and in compounds with other species, it has an almost endless array of uses. Though lithium does not have as many applications, but to many people who have received it as a medication for bipolar disorder, it is quite literally a life-saver.
Though there are lengthy discussions concerning the relationship between electron configuration and the definition of a particular collection of elements as a "family" in standard general chemistry books, it seems desirable to touch upon the subject only lightly, inasmuch as it relates to the alkali metals. All members of Group 1 on the periodic table of elements have a valence electron configuration of ns1. This means that a single electron is involved in chemical bonding, and that this single electron moves through an orbital, or range of probabilities, roughly corresponding to a sphere. Most elements bond according to what is known as the octet rule, meaning that when two or more atoms are bonded, each has (or shares) eight valence electrons. It is for this reason that the noble gases, at the opposite side of the periodic table from the alkali metals,Where To Buy Cheap Beats By Dre, almost never bond with other elements: they already have eight valence electrons. The alkali metals, on the other hand, are quite likely to find "willing partners," since they each have just one valence electron. This brings up one of the reasons why hydrogen, though it is also considered as part of Group 1, is not included as an alkali metal. First and most obviously, it is not a metal; additionally, it bonds according to what is called the duet rule,Beats By Dr Dre Studio Review, such that it shares two electrons with another element. Further, as it is short of one electron to attain the stable configuration of helium, it may be included with halogens too.
The term "alkali" (essentially the opposite of an acid) refers to a substance that forms the negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH,Monster Beats Outlet?) in contact with water. On their own,Beats Limited Edition, however, alkali metals almost always form positive ions, or cations, with a charge of +1. When alkali metals react with water, one hydrogen atom splits off from the water molecule to form hydrogen gas, while the other hydrogen atom joins the oxygen to form hydroxide. Where the heavier members of the alkali metal family are concerned, reactions can often be so vigorous that the result is combustion or even explosion. Alkali metals also react with oxygen to produce. Shiny and soft enough to be cut with a knife, the alkali metals are usually white (though cesium is more of a yellowish white). When placed in a flame,Deals On Beats By Dre, most of these substances produce characteristic colors: lithium, for instance, glows bright red, and sodium an intense yellow. Heated potassium produces a violet color, rubidium a dark red, and cesium a light blue. This makes it possible to identify the metals, when heated, by color―a useful trait, since they are so often inclined to be bonded with other elements.
As we move across the rows or periods of the periodic table, we note that the mass of atoms increases,Beats By Dre Headphones Studio, as does the energy each atom possesses. Yet the amount of energy required to turn a solid alkali metal into a liquid, or to vaporize a liquid alkali metal, actually decreases with higher atomic number. In other words, the higher the atomic number, the lower the boiling and melting points.
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