at the Yalta Conference in February 1945

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at the Yalta Conference in February 1945

Postby jdaoy9u78v » Sat Apr 21, 2012 1:29 am

The United Nations Security Council non-permanent members in the five founding member of the United Nations Security Council, a division of foreign anti-fascist Allies during World War II four +1 countries (France's defeat in 1940, the German occupation, and therefore did not participate in anti- fascist alliance) ; 1971, the seats of the Republic of China People's Republic of China instead of 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics seats replaced by the Russian Federation.
first part of the the: law

, the Security Council to 15 Member States of the United Nations Organization of the People's Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America should be the UN Security Council permanent members of the General Assembly shall elect Ten United Nations Member States to the UN Security Council non-permanent member election, the first should be fully Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security and the organization contribution on the rest of the prepared purpose and should be fully appropriate, public uniform geographical distribution increase.
Second, the UN Security Council non-permanent member of a fixed term of two years. the first election of the Security Council from 11 countries increased from 15 States non-permanent members, appointed for a term of two of the four re-election for one year. A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate line
, each member of the Security Council shall have one representative.
the Charter of the United Nations Article 27
a Security Council will each member shall have one vote.
two resolutions of the Security Council on procedural matters by an affirmative vote of nine members to vote on the
, the Security Council resolution on all other matters by an affirmative vote of nine members, including all the permanent members of the concurring votes of the parties to a dispute shall abstain from voting; but 152 of Chapter VI and prepared within the resolution of the matter.
not explicitly stated in the case, must be in favor of the Council's 15 members, at least nine votes, and the five permanent members of one country to vote against it before it is passed, that the permanent members of the vote against the often called the first time in the history of the United Nations veto February 16, 1946, the Soviet Union, Syria, Lebanon, a vote cast against it. During the Cold War - the United States and the Soviet Union and other countries for their own strategic interests, and frequent use of veto veto the other Group of motion. the third
parts: Roosevelt, the the U.S. government drafting, signed by China the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, the principle, the establishment of a universal international organization. all countries, regardless of size, may accede to the maintenance of international peace and security international organizations.
then U.S. President Roosevelt in view of the First World War when former U.S. President Woodrow Wilson advocated the establishment of the League of Nations on the lessons, starting from the global strategic interests of the United States, after a long period of planning, put forward the idea of ​​establishing a new international organization.
on November 28, 1943 to December 1st Su Meiying three heads the Tehran Conference, Roosevelt proposed a more specific plan on the establishment of international organizations, Roosevelt stressed The new international organization is a worldwide rather than regional. Roosevelt's proposal by Churchill and Stalin agreed to .12 on the 24th, Roosevelt, once again, stressed: over the world 3/4 of the population, as long as the four military powers united in its determination to preserve peace, and will not appear on the possibility of an aggressor nation once again to launch a world war. This idea became later determined to be the basis of the UN Security Council permanent members.
Part IV: China to become a permanent member of
during the Tehran Conference, Roosevelt had the afternoon of November 29, 1943, with Stalin held 45 minutes of private talks and talks, Roosevelt described in detail on the idea of ​​United Nations organizations, including the a minimum for the plenary session, which was about 35 members of the anti-fascist countries regularly meet in different places, each country has the right to express their views equally, and a smaller body to make recommendations to the middle one level of the Executive Committee, attended by the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain and China, plus the two European countries, a South American country, a Near East countries, a Far East countries and one of the British Empire (later changed to the Commonwealth) dominions. a total of 10-11 countries. agency empowered to deal with problems outside of all military, has a certain binding resolution made it to the States concerned. the highest level for the institutions of the the United Kingdom and China, the agency will have the right to quickly deal with any threat to the peace events and contingencies.
in the process to answer questions Stalin, Roosevelt further added that peace may be threatened, Police yes, if the threat is more serious, the four countries that act as
Stalin agreed with Roosevelt on the strengthening of sanctions the right to advocate, in his view, the highest level agencies of the United Nations should not only be entitled to make a decision, should also have the right to control an important military stronghold of Germany and Japan around, to prevent these two countries again took to the road of aggression.
Stalin stressed that in order to prevent aggression alone is not enough to establish the institution in several of the proposed, you must have the right to occupied an important strategic stronghold in Europe and the Far East, surrounded by Germany and Japan in their the risk of aggression, they put crushed.
the Soviets advocated the U.S. and British foreign ministers' meeting held in Moscow, U.S. Secretary of State Hull consideration of Shikoku declaration on universal security China, but it's reasons did not attend the meeting, by the tri-national meeting to discuss the declaration file of the four countries is inappropriate. Hull insisted that China as a co-sponsor of the Declaration, and even that will not hesitate to the meeting failed to reach the expense of the agreement. last Molotov made a compromise, agreed to the status of issues are left to be discussed later.
consider the United States may adhere to the win over China's Chiang Kai-shek's ruling, Stalin put forward an alternative, he suggested the formation of the two organizations : a European Organization by the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, other European countries to participate; Far East Organization or the World Organization of another, or is a European organization plus a Far East Organization, or a European organizations a world organization The program is very thorough, very tactful words, the ultimate goal is to let China into the ranks of the still adhere to their own ideas on many occasions, he said: do not realize that China is still weak, but he knew that the more distant future, after all, is a country with a population of 400 million, as a friend than as a potential source of trouble is better, he said: ; a member of the Supreme Council of China as the world organization, will make this organization the world, which is conducive to Asia called upon, so loyal to this organization. China entered the Barton Oaks, Washington, near an ancient Zhuang Yuandun meeting. meeting planned for the basic outline of the UN Charter, to solve the main problem created by the United Nations meeting to discuss the composition of the Council, the first program in the United States by the four permanent members of the 7 non-permanent members, and later the absorption France for the fifth permanent member of the Then he added, may also later proposed increase in a Latin American country for the sixth permanent member of the. by the Soviet Union representative asked the United States The representative said that the representative of Latin America is Brazil, the United States insisted that Brazil's population, size and resources make it there are good reasons to join the permanent members of Brazil in World War II victory of the anti-fascist allies made an outstanding contribution to the Soviet Union on behalf of GE Luo Mike said, the Soviet side that the permanent members of the Security Council temporarily limited to four countries, after France's entry is limited to five countries on behalf of the United Kingdom also expressed hope that the Council or not to have a sixth permanent seat, and added that, as long as a breakthrough increase in France as the fifth permanent member of the frame of to, the Council will be under great pressure, there will be proposed to further increase the permanent seat on the request later, the representative of the United States proposed, should be after the increase in the permanent the terms included in the basic documents, but the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union on behalf of this negative attitude. last three parties agreed to no longer increase in the permanent addition to the outside France.
at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the participating States to make the decision of the Constitutional Convention held in San Francisco, suggested that China and France, together with Su Meiying common as the sponsors of the San Francisco Conference (France has set up a provisional government). Chinese government accepted the proposal. France agreed to participate in the meeting. but decided not to act as sponsors of France that it did not participate in the negotiation of the Dumbarton Oaks Conference and the Yalta Conference, can not ask other countries to sign do not own to participate in the formulation of the Charter.
June 26, 1945, San Francisco system constitution meeting ended, the formal signing of the Charter of the United Nations Charter Article 23 clearly states: the five permanent members of the Security Council: the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Britain, France and the status of the five permanent members has since been formally established.
Charter also provides for the principle of concerted action to concentrate our efforts against the crisis in the region has played a significant role, reflecting thousands of years of human to want to establish an international security mechanisms to eliminate the risk of world war, and willingness to maintain peace in the world. after the start of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union in around the world race, in order to undermine each other's action plan, the two veto make frequent use of the principle of development has increasingly shown its effectiveness for the prevention of regional conflicts, and curb some of the big country supremacy in the region played an active role until today, it is still stable and well-established principle of the Charter of the United Nations. <br Part VI: permanent member of the mechanisms play a significant role
since the founding of the United Nations Security Council permanent member of such a mechanism in maintaining world peace and to resolve regional conflicts have played a huge role until 2002, the Council approved the implementation of a total of about 55 peacekeeping operations, and effectively prevent and mitigate conflict in the region to develop and expand this mechanism after the Cold War increasingly showing its vitality.
With the increase of United Nations Member States and regions of the world security increasingly complex situation, the United Nations is also facing new reform but the reform of the United Nations, especially the permanent members of the Security Council reform is a very complex issue, November 7 In 2003, former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan in Santiago, Chile The speech said that reform is not maintained in order to deprive the current powers of the Security Council's five permanent members, but in order to enable the Council to the representativeness and legitimacy of the resolutions adopted by the more widely around the world to accept the implication is that the current Council the stability of the permanent members of the mechanism should be the first thing to consider public opinion is also generally agreed that the reform of the permanent members should be cautious, give full play to one of the permanent members of the mechanism is the reform of the United Nations the right direction.
seventh part: in some countries to fight small resistance, such as China, South Korea, North Korea against Japan, the United States, Italy against Germany, Mexico, Argentina oppose Brazil, Pakistan against India.
U.S. support for Japan to become the Permanent Council, but against Japan, Germany, India and Brazil has veto power in Germany and Japan, India and Pakistan Shikoku concessions, proposes to fight the six non-veto permanent members of the seats, four attributable to Germany and Japan India and Pakistan, the two remaining to give the two African countries, African countries have been for veto a permanent member of the right, it is difficult by the African countries to support the new permanent members of the program eventually passed.
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